Demystifying Forex Terms: Your Comprehensive Guide | FxGrow
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Forex Terms

Market Mechanism


Forex Terms

As with any market, for each currency pair there are 2 prices. The difference between them is called the spread. The spread is measured in points or pips - lowest decimal figure in a currency rate. For a EURUSD a pip equals 10 dollars on 100,000.

Currencies are quoted in pairs, for example - EUR/USD or USD/JPY. The first currency in the pair is called the base currency and the second is called the counter currency. The base currency is the 'basis' for purchases and sales. For example if you buy EURSUSD, then you acquire Euros and you sell Dollars. You do this if you expect the Euro to grow against the dollar.

Profit and Loss (P&L) for every position is calculated in real time on the Fxgrow forex trading platform. This enables traders to track their P&L tick by tick as the market fluctuates.

Approximate USD values for a one (1 ) “pip” move per contract in our traded currency pairs are as follows, per , units of the base currency

CURRENCY PAIRS Price 1 pip 1 pip move per 100k (lot)
EURUSD 1.072 .000 EUR 100,000 X .0001 = USD 10
GBPUSD 1.211 .000 GBP 100,000 X .0001 = USD 10
AUDUSD 0.694 .000 AUD 100,000 X .0001 = USD 10
USDCHF 0.922 .000 USD 100,000 X .0001 = CHF 10 / Spot = approx. USD 8.5
USDJPY 130.9 .0 USD 100,000 X .01 = JPY 1,000 / Spot = approx. USD 9.7
USDCAD 1.343 .000 USD 100,000 X .0001 = CAD 10 / Spot = approx. USD 8.00
EURCHF 0.988 .000 EUR 100,000 X .0001 = CHF 10 / Spot = approx. USD 8.5
EURJPY 140.2 .0 EUR 100,000 X .01 = JPY 1,000 / Spot = approx. USD 9.7
GBPCHF 1.117 .000 GBP 100,000 X .0001 = CHF 10 / Spot = approx. USD 8.5
GBPJPY 158.5 .0 GBP 100,000 X .01 = JPY 1,000 / Spot = approx. USD 9.7

The US Dollar is the centerpiece of the Forex market and is normally considered the 'base' currency FOR QUOTES. In the 'Majors', this includes USD/JPY, USD/CHF and USD/CAD. For these currencies and many others, quotes are expressed as a unit of $1 USD per the second currency quoted in the pair. For example, a quote of USD/JPY 130.91 means that one US dollar is equal to 130.91 Japanese Yen.

When the US dollar is the base unit and a currency quote goes up, it means the dollar has appreciated in value and the other currency has weakened.

The four exceptions to this rule are the British Pound (GBP), the Australian dollar (AUD), the New Zealand dollar (NZD) and the Euro (EUR). In these cases, you might see a quote such as GBP/USD 1.2114, meaning that one British pound equals 1.2114 US dollars.

Prices are quoted in PIPS. PIP stands for “percentage in point” and is the fourth decimal point.

In EUR/USD, a 2 pip spread is quoted as 1.0724/1.0726.

In US/JPY, a 3 pip spread is quoted as 130.91/130.94

To illustrate a typical FX trade, consider the following examples:

1 - The current Bid/Ask price for EUR/USD is 1.0752/54.

Suppose you decide the Euro is undervalued against the US Dollar. To execute this strategy, you would Buy Euros (simultaneously selling Dollars), and then wait for the exchange rate to rise.

You bought at 1.0754, the Then the Euro went up to the 1.0790 level.

To realize your profits: 1.0790 - 1.0754 = 36 pips x $10 = US $360.
2 - With a $10,000 balance in your account, you decide that the US Dollar (USD) is undervalued against the Swiss Franc (CHF).

To execute this strategy, you must Buy Dollars (simultaneously Selling Francs), and then wait for the exchange rate to rise.

The current price for USD/CHF is 0.9185/0.9187 (meaning you can Buy $1 US at 0.9187). Your available leverage is 100:1.

As expected, USDCHF rises 50 pips -> 0.9237.

0.9237 - 0.9187 = 50 CHF.

To calculate your P&L in terms of US Dollars, simply divide 50 by the current USD/CHF rate of 0.9187, your profit on this trade is $540


CFDs are complex instruments that come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. Whilst leverage enables traders to magnify their profits on successful trades, it is still possible for significant losses to occur; around 78% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs.
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